The second of the four major caliphates established after the death of prophet Muhammad (632 AD). Ruled by the Umayyads, the first dynasty of caliphs, 661–750, with their capital in Damascus 661–744. Their empire stretched from Central Asia to Morocco and Spain and was the largest in the world at that time.
In 750 the Umayyads were defeated by the Abbasids. Some survivors of the dynasty escaped and established the Emirate and then Caliphate al-Andalus in present-day Spain, with Córdoba as their capital, where they ruled until 1031.
More about in AD Jordan:
- Desert Castles
- Amman Citadel