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Período romano

Piezas desde la época romana temprana en Jordania en el 63 a.C. hasta los comienzos del siglo IV d.C.

Parte del tour visual informativo por el Museo Jordano en Amán, en el marco de Art Destination Jordania.

Período romano en Jordania  

El Período romano en Jordania

El periodo romano en Jordania comenzó en el año 63 a.C. cuando el General Pompeyo ocupó las regiones del noroeste del Reino Nabateo. Posteriormente, el norte de Jordania pasó a formar parte de la "Provincia Romana de Siria" que se estableció en el siglo I d.C.

Al igual que en los reinos helenísticos anteriores, la presencia romana no era sólo militar, sino también cultural, y la difusión de la cultura greco-romana dio lugar a una fusión de los elementos culturales locales y los que llegaban. Esto se ilustra bien en la Liga de la Decápolis (Diez Ciudades) fundada poco después de la invasión romana.

The exact nature of this league is not clear, and the number of cities cited within it varied at times. Most of the Decapolis cities are located in north-western Jordan; while the rest were in modern southern Syria and north-eastern Palestine. The league had its special status in economic and political affairs, and constituted a unified territory. Its cities were independent in their internal affairs, and obtained the right to mint their own coins. Due to their privileged geographical role, the cities played a prominent politico-commercial role in the region, and became grand provincial Roman cities marked by their orthogonal town-planning, splendid monumental structures and their direct connection to Rome. On the other hand, the communities around the cities were of rural nature with a distinctive local identity.

In AD 106, Trajan, the first non-Italian emperor, occupied the Nabataean Kingdom and established the Province of Arabia. Nabataea and the Decapolis territories formed this new province, which was the most southeasterly extent of the Roman Empire. Bostra (Busra), the last Nabataean capital became the capital of this province; while Gerasa (Jerash), a Decapolis city, was the financial centre. Jordan thrived during both Trajan’s rule (AD 98 - 117) and his successor's Hadrian (AD 117-138), who spent most of his time travelling in the provinces. The triumphal arch (Arch of Hadrian) in Gerasa was built to commemorate his visit to the city.

The Roman government took a number of military and administrative measures that helped in stimulating the economy and creating a cultural and architectural boom in the second and early third centuries. These measures included building roads, maintaining security, urban development, and spreading the Graeco-Roman culture. Trade flourished in Jordan because of its geographic position, and agricultural products such as grains, olive oil and wine, were exported. Regional production of everyday objects, especially pottery and metalwork, also existed.

The third century was a critical time for the Empire when many disturbances took place. In Syria, Zenobia the Queen of Palmyra revolted against Rome and went on in 269 to occupy parts of Egypt, most probably passing through Jordan. After the Romans suppressed Zenobia's revolt, they made several changes to the Province of Arabia, culminating in the reforms of Emperor Diocletian in 295 whereby the provinces of the region were reconfigured, new provinces got established, and the frontiers were fortified.

The Roman Period is considered to end with the reign of the Roman Emperor Constantine, who officially permitted and promoted Christianity in 324. Although the empire continued to be called Roman, the cultural changes that followed permit the designation of a new era - the Byzantine Period.

© De textos en el Museo Jordano

El Museo Jordano
Museo nacional de historia y cultura de Jordania. Más de 2.000 artefactos. Amplio recorrido visual informativo en el marco de Art Destination Jordania.

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